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Joints and Planes of Motion

Main Joint

Bones

Plane

Motion

Muscles

Orgin/insertion

Hip (trunk fixed, leg free to move)

Innominate (ilium, ischium, pubis) & femur

Parasagittal

Flexion

Rectus femoris

AIIS /patella

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

 

Biceps femoris

Gluteus maximus

Ischium/fibula

Ilium,sacrum, coccyx/ femur

 

 

Frontal

Abduction

 

G. maximus

 

G. medius

G. minimus

Ilium,sacrum, coccyx/ femur

Ilium/femur

Ilium/ femur

 

 

Frontal

Adduction

G. maximus

 

G. medius

G. minimus

Ilium,sacrum, coccyx/ femur

Ilium/femur

Ilium/ femur

 

 

Parasagittal

Lateral Rotaion

Biceps femoris

Gluteus maximus

 

Sartoius

Ischium/fibula

Ilium,sacrum, coccyx/ femur

Iliac/tibia

 

 

Parasagittal

Medial Rotation

Semitendinosis

Semimembranosis

G. minimus

Ischium/Tibia

Ischium/Tibia

Ilium femur

 

 

Triaxial

Circumduction

All in medial/lateral rotation

All in medial/lateral rotation

 

 

Frontal

Pelvic Drop

Adductor Magnus

G. maximus

Pubis/femur

Ilium/sacrum/coccyx – femur

 

 

Sagittal

Pelvic Tilt

Rectus femoris

Biceps femoris

Gluteus maximus

AIIS/patella

Ischium/fibula

Ilium/sacrum/coccyx – femur

Hip Continued…

Horizontal

Pelvic Swing

Biceps femoris

Gluteus maximus

 

Sartoius

Semitendinosis

Semimembranosis

G. minimus

Ischium/fibula

Ilium,sacrum, coccyx/ femur

Iliac/tibia

Ischium/Tibia

Ischium/Tibia

Ilium femur

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knee

Patella, femur, tibia, fibula

Parasagittal

Flexion

Biceps femoris

Semitendinosis

Semimembranous

 

Ischium/fibula

Ischium/Tibia

Ischium/Tibia

 

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

Rectus femoris

 Vastus lateralis

Vastus medialis

Illiac/tibial tuberosity

Femur/tibia

Femur/tibia

 

 

Parasagittal

Medial Rotation

Semitendinosis

Semimembranous

Gracilis

Ischium/Tibia

Ischium/Tibia

Pubis/tibia

 

 

Parasagittal

Lateral Rotation

Biceps femoris

 

Ischium/fibula

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ankle

Tibia, fibula, calcaneus, talus

Frontal

Inversion

Tibalis Anterior

 

Tibialis Posterior

Tibia/cuneiform, first metatarsal

Tibia, fibula/navicular

 

 

Frontal

Eversion

Peroneus longus

 

Peroneus brevis

Fibula/ cuneiform, first metatarsal

Fibula/5th metatarsal.

 

Ankle Cont’d…

 

 

 

Parasagittal

 

 

Plantar flexion

 

 

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

 

Tibialis Posterior

 

 

Femur/calcaneus

Tibia, fibula/calcaneus

Tibia, fibula/navicular

 

 

 

Dorsiflexion

Tibialis Posterior

Tibia, fibula/navicular

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shoulder

Scapula, Clavicle, acromion, humerus, sternum

Parasagittal

Flexion

Deltoid

 

Pectoralis major

 

Biceps brachii

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

Clavicle, sternum, ribs/humerus

Scapula/radius

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

Deltoid

 

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

Spine/humerus

Scapula/humerus

 

 

Horizontal

Abduction (horizontal)

Deltoid

 

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

Scapula/humerus

Scapula/humerus

 

 

Horizontal

Adduction

(horizontal)

Deltoid

 

Pectoralis Major

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

 

 

 

Frontal

Abduction

Deltoid

 

Supraspinatus

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

 

 

 

 

Frontal

 

Adduction

 

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Infraspinatus

 

Spine/humerus

Scapula/humerus

Scapula/humerus

Shoulder Cont’d…

….

Horizontal

Lateral Rotation

Deltoid

 

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

Scapula/humerus

scapula/

 

 

Horizontal

Medial Rotation

Deltoid

 

Latissimus dorsi

Teres major

Clavicle, acromion/humerus

Spine/humerus

Scapula/humerus

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elbow

Scapula, radius, ulna, humerus

Parasagittal

Flexion

Biceps brachii

Brachialis

Scapula/radius

Humerus/ulna

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

Triceps brachii

 

Anconeus

Scapula, humerus/ulna

Humerus/ulna

Spine

Vertebrae

Sagittal

Flexion

Rectus Abdominus

External Oblique

Internal Oblique

Pubis/5-7 ribs

Lower 8 ribs/Ilium

Ilium/Lower 3 ribs

 

 

Sagittal

Extension

Spinalis

 

 

Long Issimus

 

 

Iliocostalis

T1-T12/upper thoracic, lower cervical, C2-T5

Common tendon/Ribs, Cervical vertebrae, temporalis

Common tendon, ribs/ L1-3,ribs, lower cervical vertabrae

 

Shoulder Cont’d…

 

 

Frontal

 

Lateral Flexion

 

Spinalis

 

 

Longissimus

 

 

Iliocostalis

 

T1-T12/upper thoracic, lower cervical, C2-T5

Common tendon/Ribs, Cervical vertebrae, temporalis

Common tendon, ribs/L1-3, ribs, lower cervicals

 

 

Horizontal

Rotation

Mulitfidi

Rotatores

 

External Oblique

L-C  vertebrae/L-C2

L-C vertebrae/L-C vertebrae

Lower 8 ribs/Ilium

 

Extra Joints

 

 

 

 

 

1st MTP

Metatarsal phalange of the hallux

Parasagittal

Flexion

Flexor hallucis longus

Abductor hallucis

Fibula/hallux

 

Calcaneus/hallux

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

Extensor hallucis brevis

Flexor hallucis brevis

Adductor hallucis

 

Calcaneus /hallux

 

Cuboidal, cuneiform/hallux

2-4 metatarsals/

Hallux

MCP

Metacarpals, phalanx

Horizontal

Flexion

Extensor digitorum

Lumbricals

Humerus/2-5 MC

 

 

 

 

MCP Cont’d…

 

Horizontal

Extension

Flexor digitorum superficialis

 

Flexor digitorum profundus

 

Humerus, ulna, radius/2-5 phalanges

 

Ulna/2-5 phalanges

Wrist

Radius, ulna, carpals

Parasagittal

Flexion

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexor carpi ulnaris

 

Palmaris longus

Humerus/2+3 MC

Humerus, ulna/pisiform

Humerus/flexor retinaculum aponeurosis

 

 

 

 

Parasagittal

Extension

Extensor carpi radialis longus

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Extensor carpi ulnaris

 

Humerus/2 MC

 

Humerus/3 MC

 

Humerus/5 MC

 

 

Frontal

Abduction

Extensor carpi radialus longus

Extensor carpi radialus brevis

Flexor carpi radialis

Humerus/2 MC

 

Humerus/3 MC

 

Humerus/5 MC

 

 

Frontal

Adduction

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Humerus/5 MC

 

Humerus/5 MC

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